Bonobo chimpanzee: habits, habitats and information on the behavior of the Pan Paniscus species. Research and differences with the common chimpanzee.
Is known asdwarf chimpanzee, pygmy, chimpanzee bonoboor simplybonobo, it is ayou firstof the hominid family. Its scientific name isPan Paniscus. Many refer to the bonobocalling it "bonobo monkey“.
The name "bonobo monkey”Is not incorrect. The bonobo chimpanzee can be classified as an "anthropomorphic ape". The anthropomorphic apes are thosehominoidsmore similar to humans in physical and intellectual characteristics. Like thechimpanzeegorillas, orangutans and gibbons also fall into this category.
Thechimpanzee bonobowas distinguished from thecommon chimpanzee(Pan troglodytes) in 1933 but only subsequent genetic studies have confirmed this taxonomic difference.
Difference between bonobo simpanzé and common chimpanzee
Thebonoboit is distinguished from the common chimpanzee by the black color of the whole muzzle except for the lips and the tufts of hair at the top of the head.
The namedwarf chimpanzeerefers to the fact that ipygmies(bonobo) compared to the common chimpanzee they are slightly smaller, tend to have shorter arms and a stockier body. From a behavioral point of view, ibonobothey have a behavior of greater social tolerance. In one experiment, a pair of bonobos and a pair of chimpanzees were placed in front of two plates containing fruit: the bonobos shared food with each other; the chimpanzees, on the contrary, seemed to avoid each other.
From a genetic point of view, the estimated differences are around 0.3%
Where does the bonobo chimpanzee live?
The natural habitat ofbonoboit consists of the rainforests of central Africa where the climate is hot-humid and the area is made up of a mosaic of primary and secondary forest. Only occasionally does the habitat consist of savannas or non-wooded areas.
THEbonobohave a discontinuous range in the rainforests south ofCongo River, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, between the Lualaba River to the east, the Tumba and Mai-Ndombe Lakes to the west and the Kasai River to the south. On the opposite bank of the Congo River lives itcommon chimpanzee, one theory states that the species Pan Paniscus(bonobo monkey) has evolved evolutionarily due to the presence of the river. Since the chimps could not cross the watercourse, they were unable to come into contact with them. Rivers can be an obstacle togenetic flowamong the populations ofbonobo.
What do chimpanzees eat?
Compared to common chimpanzees, ibonobothey have a diet more strictly linked to fruit and also consume herbaceous plants. They also integrate animal sources in their diet: they feed on vertebrates and invertebrates, among other prey, they can also eat monkeys.
They live in "community"
Godsbonobomore interested in "social behavior". The Pan Paniscus species usually lives in "communities" of 30-80 individuals, the community has amatriarchal model.
Unlike thecommon chimpanzeewhere competition for resources is strong, ibonobothey tend to have "more human behaviors" in terms ofresource sharingstarting with food. Bonobos have been associated with various “prosocial” behaviors and have also been defined as “empathic” animals.
In one experiment, bonobos were shown videos of other individuals of the same species yawning. The observing bonobos responded to the video by yawning in turn! This behavior, for scientists, is a form of empathy.
Not only that, in nature ipygmiesfood of animal origin is divided. They do not tend to share food of plant origin because it is more available and easy to access. This is what happens in nature. In captivity, however, this "behavior of selflessness and sharing" is lacking, even if the community continues to be peaceful.
Please note: for animals there is no logic “in captivity the food is guaranteed by the maintainer and therefore there is no need for cooperation or competition”. For example, the situation is different for captive macaques. When the maintenance worker arrives to administer the food, only the proximity of the operator immediately generates a highly competitive behavior with predominant behavior against individuals of lower rank, younger and easier to intimidate.
Sexual habits. In the bonobo, fights for dominance are quite rare both in nature and in captivity: in this species sexual and homosexual interactions are very common as reactions to social stress.
The IUCN Red List classifies bonobos as endangered species with conservative population estimates ranging from 29,500 to 50,000 individuals.
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